Twitter Application Auth Sample - PHP

This is a sample PHP code which can be used to get a Twitter OAuth token for use in making API calls.

It includes a trends available request that gets the list of countries for which Twitter trends are available.

Be sure to read the documentation at the link above. A given application can only have one token at any given time, so once established, the token should be stored and reused.

        $consumerKey = '-- YOUR CONSUMER KEY --';
        $consumerSecret = '-- YOUR CONSUMER SECRET --';
        $encodedKey = urlencode($consumerKey);
        $encodedSecret = urlencode($consumerSecret);
        $bearerTokenCredentials = $encodedKey.':'.$encodedSecret;
        $ch = curl_init();
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, '');
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, 'grant_type=client_credentials');
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, false);
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_ENCODING, 'gzip');
        curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,
                array('Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded;charset=UTF-8',
                        'Authorization: Basic '.$base64BearerTokenCredentials));
        $result = curl_exec($ch);
        $error = curl_errno($ch);
        if ($error === 0) {
                $json = json_decode($result);
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, '');
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPGET, true);
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, false);
                curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,
                                array('Authorization: Bearer '.$json->access_token));
                $result = curl_exec($ch);
                $error = curl_errno($ch);
                if ($error === 0) {
                        $json = json_decode($result);
                        $countries = array();
                        foreach ($json as $location) {
                                if ($location->placeType->name == 'Country') {
                                        $countries[$location->woeid] = $location->name;

git "Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive)."

If you are getting permission denied when working with git on a remote server using a key, this may help.

First test to ensure the key will be accepted by the remote server.

ssh -v

Look for these lines in the output:

debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: /home/account/.ssh/example.key
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 277
debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).

Then check your ~/.ssh/config file. Be sure the user is in the file and matches what worked with the ssh test.


    User git
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/example.key

Now get back to work.


Amazon S3 Backup

This is the third tier of a backup system, the last resort if everything has been destroyed or corrupted. This script can run on a local machine or elsewhere. I chose to run it locally because the credentials are not on a publicly accessible server. The local machine copies the data from the publicly accessible servers, stores it, then sends it to S3.

The first step is to sign up at Amazon for an S3 account, create a bucket and a user. Limit the privileges for the user as much as possible, for this script, the user needs only the putObject privilege.

The script is written in Ruby. It reads JSON configuration file which contains all the servers, files and databases to be backed up.

JSON file syntax:

"email": "user@localhost",
"servers": {
"": {
"login": "username",
"password" : "password",
"databases": [ { "name": "database_name", "dbuser": "user", "dbpass": "password"} ],
"files": ["backup.tgz"] }
"s3": {
"bucket": "",
"username": "user",
"accesskeyid": "-- S3 Access Key Id --",
"secretaccesskey": "-- S3 Secret Access Key --"

Each server can include multiple databases and files. Be sure to limit the privileges for this database user to SELECT and LOCK TABLES, which makes them effectively read only. Be sure to grant remote access to the database for the backup server.

The files are to be placed in a directory where they can be retrieved with wget - in the example above it would be The intent of these files is that they contain content already publicly available. This is NOT a place to put the application configuration settings.

Each server will have a hierarchy like this:
|-- initial.tgz
`-- 20140101093022
|-- backup.tgz
`-- database_name.sql.tgz

Create initial.tgz manually - run the tar command at the top of the account, download it to your local machine, then upload it to S3. If you want to get it to S3 from the server, that's fine, just be careful not to ever leave your S3 credentials on the source server.

This is the backup script. It uses wget to get the files (you can use scp, but then you may have a credential issue), and dumps the database.

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

require 'json'
require 'net/smtp'
require 'rubygems'
require 'aws-sdk'

class ItemStatus
	def initialize(item_name, exit_status, ls_file)
		@item_name, @exit_status, @ls_file = item_name, exit_status, ls_file

	def name
		return @item_name

	def error
		return @download_exit_status != 0 

json ='config/.json')
parms = JSON.load(json)

if parms["email"].nil? || parms["email"].empty?
	to_email = "user@localhost"
	to_email = parms["email"]

s3 =
  :access_key_id => parms['s3']['accesskeyid'],
  :secret_access_key => parms['s3']['secretaccesskey']

backup_dir = "servers"
bucket = s3.buckets[parms['s3']['bucket']]

backup =
parms["servers"].each_pair {|server_name, server|
	puts "Server: #{server_name}"
	if !server.empty?
		date = `date "+%Y%m%d%H%M"|tr -d "\n"`
		dir = backup_dir + "/" + server_name + "/" + date
		mkdir = `mkdir -p "#{dir}"`
		if $?.exitstatus === 0
			dir_created = true
			if !server["files"].nil? && !server["files"].empty?
				files = server["files"]
                                if (files.length > 0)
				        if !server["login"].nil? && !server["password"].nil?
						files.each {|file_name|
							dir_file_name = "#{dir}/#{file_name}"
							Net::SSH.start("#{server_name}", "#{server["login"]}", :password => "#{server["password"]}") do |ssh|! "#{file_name}", "#{dir_file_name}"
							`ls -l "#{dir_file_name}"`
							backup.push("#{file_name}", $?.exitstatus, `ls -l "#{dir_file_name}"`))		
						files.each {|file_name|
							dir_file_name = "#{dir}/#{file_name}"
							`wget -q http://"#{server_name}"/"#{file_name}" -O "#{dir_file_name}"`
							backup.push("#{file_name}", $?.exitstatus, `ls -l "#{dir_file_name}"`))		
			if !server["databases"].nil? && !server["databases"].empty?
				databases = server["databases"]
				if (databases.length > 0)
					databases.each {|db|
						dbvalues = db.values_at("name", "dbuser", "dbpass").delete_if {|v| v.nil? || v.empty?}
						if dbvalues.length === 3
							dir_file_name = "#{dir}/#{db["name"]}.sql"
							dump = `mysqldump -C #{db["name"]} -u"#{db["dbuser"]}" -p"#{db["dbpass"]}" -h"#{server_name}" > "#{dir_file_name}"`
							backup.push(["name"], $?.exitstatus, `ls -l "#{dir_file_name}"`))
							tar_file_name = dir_file_name + ".tgz"
							tar = `tar czf #{tar_file_name} #{dir_file_name}`
							backup.push(, $?.exitstatus, `ls -l "#{tar_file_name}"`))
			dir_created = false
	error ={|item| item.error}
	if error.length == 0
		`find -mindepth 1 -mtime +8 | xargs --no-run-if-empty rm -rf`
To: Me #{to_email}
Subject: #{server_name} backup status


	if !server.empty?
		if dir_created
			msg = msg + "Created #{dir} okay\n\n"
			if backup.length > 0
				msg = msg + "Files\n"
				backup.each {|v|
					msg = msg + "\t" + v.to_s
				msg = msg + "\nColumns\n\t1. Source\n\t2. Exit Status\n\t3. File Information\n"
			msg = msg + "mkdir #{dir} failed"
		msg = msg + "No backup configuration"
	msg = msg + "\n\n\n"
		Net::SMTP.start('localhost', 25) do |smtp|
			smtp.send_message msg,'amazon@localhost', to_email
		puts "Mail send failed"


Finally, create a cron job to run the script as needed.

It is assumed that version control for the code is handled elsewhere. This backup is for data, with an emergency copy of the code. If the code is updated, it must be manually updated.

A note about leaving the password in the config file. I understand it is a security issue. That's why this is running on a local machine. Is it completely secure? No. But it isn't on a publicly accessible server either. Could I spend more time making it secure? Absolutely. Am I going to? Probably not.

eZ 4.x Custom User Group Assignment Workflow

This is a simple workflow event that will extract a member type attribute (single select) and use it to assign the member into a group on register.

It catches not only self-registration, but updates made through the admin interface.

class HPMemberRegisterType extends eZWorkflowEventType
	const WORKFLOW_TYPE_STRING = 'hpmemberregister';

	public function __construct() 
		parent::__construct( HPMemberRegisterType::WORKFLOW_TYPE_STRING, 'HP Member Register' );
	public function execute ( $process, $event )
		$parameters = $process->attribute( 'parameter_list' );
		$ini = eZINI::instance( 'hpmember.ini' );

		$objectID = $parameters['object_id']; 
		$object = eZContentObject::fetch( $objectID );
		$nodeID = $object->attribute( 'main_node_id' );
		$node = eZContentObjectTreeNode::fetch( $nodeID );

		if ( $object->contentClassIdentifier() === 'member' ) {

			$dataMap = $object->dataMap();
			$memberTypeValue = $dataMap[ 'member_type' ]->content();
			$contentClass = $object->contentClass();
			$memberTypes = $contentClass->fetchAttributeByIdentifier( 'member_type' )->content();
			$memberType = $memberTypes['options'][$memberTypeValue[0]]['name'];
			$memberGroup = $ini->variable( 'MemberGroup', $memberType );
			if ( $memberGroup !== null ) 
				$node->setAttribute ( 'parent_node_id', $memberGroup );

		return eZWorkflowType::STATUS_ACCEPTED;
eZWorkflowEventType::registerEventType( HPMemberRegisterType::WORKFLOW_TYPE_STRING, 'hpmemberregistertype' );

.ini file:

<?php /* #?ini charset="utf-8"?

# The node id members with that type should be placed in

*/ ?>

You can place your nodes where you like. Be sure the names under [MemberGroup] are identical to the options in the selection attribute added to the class used for user registration. This code uses a custom Member class to distinguish eZ Users from site members.

PHP - Catching session timeout issues

I've been working on a bug where an application is logging out unexpectedly.

To identify the piece of code that is destroying the session namespace I've been using the code snippet:

 $trace = ob_get_contents();
 file_put_contents(basename(__FILE__).'.out', var_export($trace,true).PHP_EOL.var_export($_SERVER, ,true).PHP_EOL);

What it does is dumps out the stack that called the function it is placed in.

You can add additional information like a timestamp or FILE_APPEND.

You may also want to use Zend's logging. The reason I don't use it is that every instruction adds overhead. Once this issue is resolved, I'll remove all the debug code. I hope.

Credit to the link. :)